The following is a summary of the changes in the WFTDA Rules for Flat Track Roller Derby released on March 1, 2014. Leagues may begin playing sanctioned games under the new rules immediately, and all sanctioned games must use these rules starting April 1, 2014.
Please note that this is not a comprehensive listing of new and changed rules. It is only provided as a convenience to highlight the most significant changes. Skaters, coaches, officials, and fans are encouraged to read through the new rule set in its entirety.
For a line-by-line review of all changes, download our change detail document: Rules of Flat Track Roller Derby Line-by-Line Change Detail
Throughout the March 2014 ruleset, all references to “Major penalty” have been changed to “penalty”. “Legal play” and “illegal play without impact on the game” are also now differentiated throughout the ruleset.
A team may have up to two Official Reviews per period, if their first Official Review identifies an error in officiating.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|2.10.2 - A team is allowed up to one official review per period.||1.11.2 - A team is guaranteed one Official Review per period.
220.127.116.11 - If, during a team’s first Official Review of the period, the Head Referee determines that an officiating error was made in relation to the objection, the team will retain their Official Review.
The rewritten section specifies the conditions and duration of the Star Pass. The pass of both helmet cover and position now happens when the Jammer releases the Star into the Pivot’s grasp.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|Section 3.5 - A Jammer may transfer their position to their team’s Pivot, allowing said Pivot to become the point-scoring skater for their team for the remainder of the jam. This is commonly referred to as “Passing the Star.” Only the position of Jammer, and not the status of Lead Jammer, may be transferred to a Pivot Blocker. A Pivot-turned-Jammer cannot gain Lead Jammer status.
3.5.1 - The star may be transferred by either Jammer while in the Engagement Zone. Jammers and Pivots must be within the Engagement Zone to pass the star. It is illegal to transfer the star outside of the Engagement Zone or while out of bounds.
3.5.2 - The star may only be transferred to a Pivot that is in play.
3.5.3 - The initiator of the star pass is always responsible for the legality of the star pass.
18.104.22.168 - Jammers may not pass the star while in route to or in the penalty box.
22.214.171.124 - Jammers may pass the star upon returning to play from the penalty box.
126.96.36.199 - Jammers may not pass the star to a Pivot who is in queue for the penalty box.
3.5.4 - Pass Procedure
In order to transfer the Jammer position to the Pivot, a Jammer must remove the Jammer helmet cover and hand it to their team’s Pivot. The Jammer helmet cover may not be handed off via other skaters or thrown. The Jammer helmet cover may not be taken off the Jammer’s head by the Pivot or another skater. A Jammer who has removed, or whose teammate has removed, the Jammer helmet cover has forfeited:
188.8.131.52 - The ability to accrue points, unless the Jammer returns the Jammer helmet cover to their head with the stars visible.
184.108.40.206 - The Lead Jammer status.
3.5.5 - Jammer status is transferred when the Pivot is wearing the Jammer helmet cover on their helmet with the stars visible.
220.127.116.11 - In an illegal star pass, the Jammer status is not transferred, even if the Pivot then has possession of the Jammer helmet cover. Both skaters retain their original status and the initiator of the pass is penalized accordingly (see Section 6.13 - Illegal Procedures).
3.5.6 - Once Jammer status is transferred, it cannot be transferred back to the original Jammer.
3.5.7 - A star pass may be blocked by the opposing team by any means of legal blocking.
3.5.8 - Incomplete Star Passes and Recovery
18.104.22.168 - If a Jammer helmet cover falls to the ground or is removed from play by any means, it may only be recovered by the Jammer or Pivot.
22.214.171.124.1 - The Pivot is eligible to obtain Jammer status by retrieving a dropped Jammer helmet cover and placing it on their helmet unless the Jammer is in the penalty box, in which case the Pivot will not be considered the Jammer until the original Jammer is released from the penalty box and legally returns to the track.
126.96.36.199 - A Jammer or Pivot may skate in any direction to retrieve the Jammer helmet cover, including out of bounds if the helmet cover is itself out of bounds. They are still susceptible to Out of Play penalties.
188.8.131.52 - If a star pass cannot be completed for any reason, the Jammer may return the Jammer helmet cover to their own helmet and regain their active Jammer position, but not Lead Jammer status (see Section 3.5.4 - Pass Procedure).
3.5.9 – Pass Completion
184.108.40.206 - A Pivot that has been passed the star attains Jammer status when the Jammer helmet cover has been placed on their helmet. Until the Jammer cover is on, the Pivot is subject to out of play penalties.
220.127.116.11 - A Pivot that has been passed the star and has become the Jammer is now subject to all rules per Section 8 - Scoring. The Pivot picks up where the previous Jammer left off on points scored and number of laps through the pack. The Jammer helmet cover must be on the new Jammer’s helmet and the stars must be visible in order for the new Jammer to accrue points.
18.104.22.168 - A Pivot who has taken the position of Jammer for their team by means of a successful Jammer helmet cover transfer will play the position of Jammer for the remainder of the jam.
22.214.171.124 - A Jammer who successfully completes a Jammer helmet cover transfer to the Pivot will play the position of Blocker for the remainder of the jam.
3.5.10 - See Section 6.13.26 and Section 6.13.27 for passing the star penalty procedures.
|Section 2.5 - A Jammer may transfer their position to their team’s Pivot, allowing said Pivot to become the point-scoring skater for their team for the remainder of the jam. This is commonly referred to as “Passing the Star”. Only the position of Jammer, and not the status of Lead Jammer, may be transferred to the Pivot. A Pivot-turned-Jammer can score points, but cannot gain Lead Jammer status.
2.5.1 - Pass Procedure: In order to transfer the Jammer position to the Pivot, a Jammer must hand their helmet cover (the “Star”) to the Pivot. (Removing the Star will make the Jammer inactive; see Section 2.3.3) The Pivot must be grasping the Star when the Jammer releases it. Upon the Jammer releasing the Star, the Pivot will be considered the Jammer, and the prior Jammer will be considered a Blocker. They retain these new roles until the end of the jam.
126.96.36.199 - The Jammer status may only be transferred by a Jammer who releases the Star while in the Engagement Zone, to a Pivot who is also within the Engagement Zone. It is illegal to transfer the Star while either the Jammer or Pivot is outside of the Engagement Zone, down, or out of bounds. This applies only to the moment of transfer (i.e., the Jammer’s release of the Star into the grasping Pivot’s hand).
188.8.131.52 - All rules regarding inactive Jammers apply. The inital Jammer is inactive as soon as they have removed the Star, and the Pivot-turned-Jammer is inactive until they have put the Star on with the stars visible.
184.108.40.206 - Jammer status may not be transferred by handing off the Star via other skaters, or throwing or dropping the Star.
220.127.116.11 - Jammers may not pass the Star while en route to or in the Penalty Box.
18.104.22.168.1 - Jammer may pass the Star upon returning to play from the Penalty Box.
22.214.171.124 - Jammers may not pass the Star to a Pivot who has been directed to or is in queue for the Penalty Box.
2.5.2 - If the Star is passed illegally, the Jammer status is not transferred, even if the Pivot has sole possession of the Star. Both skaters retain their original status, and the initiator of the pass is penalized accordingly. (see see Section 5.13 - Illegal Procedures)
2.5.3 - A Star Pass may be blocked by the opposing team by any means of legal blocking.
2.5.4 - Incomplete Star Passes and Recovery: If the Star falls to the ground for any reason or is removed from play by any means, it may only be recovered by the Jammer or Pivot.
126.96.36.199 - If the Pivot recovers the Star in this manner, the Pivot may not place it on their own helmet. Doing so shall be considered illegal initiation of a Star Pass. The Pivot may return it to the inactive Jammer via a hand-off, throwing, or dropping, but not via other skaters.
188.8.131.52 - When the inactive Jammer is once again grasping the Star, said Jammer may immediately release it back into possession of the Pivot, so long as the other requirements of Section 2.5.1 are met. Such an action constitutes a valid transfer of Jammer status.
184.108.40.206 - If a Star Pass cannot be completed for any reason, the Jammer may return the Star to their own helmet and regain active Jammer status.
2.5.5 - A Pivot who has just become the Jammer is now subject to all rules per Section 7 - Scoring. The Pivot picks up where the previous Jammer left off (i.e., on the same pass, having scored points on the same Blockers during that pass).
Adds a new penalty for skaters who are completely out of position at the jam-starting whistle. Touching both in and out of a legal starting position will result in a False Start warning, as in prior rulesets. Yielding now requires the skater to yield position to everyone in the vicinity, or they may be issued a Failure to Yield penalty.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|220.127.116.11 - Blockers must be in a position pre-jam so that the pack will exist behind the Pivot Line and in front of the Jammer Line at the jam-starting whistle, or immediately after the jam-starting whistle should the jam begin with a no pack.
4.2.4 - Jammer Starting Position: Jammers line up on or behind the Jammer Line.
18.104.22.168 - A Jammer false starts for being out of position at the jam-starting whistle when that Jammer is touching beyond the Jammer Line.
22.214.171.124.1 - A false starting Jammer must yield to the opposing Jammer by giving them the opportunity to pass them.
126.96.36.199.2 - If there is no opposing Jammer for a false starting Jammer to yield their advantage to, the false starting Jammer must still come to a complete stop and yield their advantage to the pack.
188.8.131.52 - A non-Pivot Blocker false starts for being out of position at the jam-starting whistle when the Blocker:
184.108.40.206.1 - Is touching on or beyond the Pivot Line.
220.127.116.11.2 - Is touching on or behind the Jammer Line.
18.104.22.168.3 - Lines up in front of a Pivot Blocker who is upright and on the Pivot Line.
22.214.171.124 - A Pivot Blocker false starts for being out of position at the jam-starting whistle when the Pivot Blocker:
126.96.36.199.1 - Is touching beyond the Pivot Line.
188.8.131.52.2 - Is touching on or behind the Jammer Line.
|184.108.40.206 - Blockers are in position if they are between the Jammer Line and the Pivot Line (measured counter-clockwise) at the start of the jam. No Blockers may be touching the Jammer Line, and only the Pivot Blocker may be touching the Pivot Line. Blockers must be in a position, pre-jam such that the pack will exist behind the Pivot Line and in front of the Jammer Line at the jam-starting whistle, or immediately after the jam-starting whistle should the jam begin without a defined pack.
3.2.4 - Jammer Starting Position: Jammers may line up anywhere between the Jammer Line and the Pivot Line (measured clockwise). Jammers may line up touching the Jammer Line, but may not be touching the Pivot Line.
3.2.8 - Skaters who line up fully in bounds but in an illegal starting position (while touching their legal starting area) are considered to have committed a False Start, and will receive a False Start warning. Once warned, skaters who False Start must cease all forward motion until they have yielded to all skaters in the immediate vicinity by ceding relative position to those skaters, or they may be issued a penalty (see Section 5.13.9).
220.127.116.11 - If, after the warning, no skaters are in immediate vicinity of a skater who has false started (in the clockwise direction), the false-starting skater must come to a complete stop in order to yield. After yielding, they may skate normally.
18.104.22.168 - If a false-starting skater attempts to cede relative position (by coming to a stop), but no other skaters make an attempt to take back said advantage, the false-starting skater is no longer required to yield.
22.214.171.124 - Prior to yielding, a Blocker who has false started is not considered part of the pack.
5.13.9 - Failure to Yield: A skater who commits a False Start (see Section 3.2.8) by touching partially outside of their legal starting area at the jam-starting whistle, and then fails to yield advantage gained thereby.
Clarifies explicitly that impeding an opponent with an impenetrable wall is illegal; this was not formalized in prior rulesets. No changes have been made to the sorts of actions that should be penalized, only to the description of those actions.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|6.7.8 - Maintaining a multi-player block where an opponent makes contact with the block and is impeded, including where it prevents another skater receiving a block from an opponent for any amount of time.||5.7.9 - Linking with a teammate in a manner that, upon a physical challenge by an opponent, prevents said opponent from passing between said teammates.
126.96.36.199 - The penalty will be issued to the initiator of the link. If neither skater can be identified as the initiator of the link, the penalty will be issued to the linker closest to the referee.
Impact spectrum for Direction of Game Play changes to mirror the impact spectrum for other contact penalties such as forearms and elbows, which require that an opponent be impeded or put out of relative position. Merely moving an opponent or putting the opponent off balance is no longer considered to have sufficient impact to warrant a penalty. Except, if the stopped position or clockwise momentum is actively maintained, this would still result in a penalty.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|6.9.15 - A block by a stopped skater that includes physical contact which forces the receiving opposing skater off balance, forward, backward, and/or sideways, but does not cause the opposing skater to lose relative position.
6.9.17 - A clockwise block that includes physical contact which forces the receiving opposing skater off-balance, forward, backward, and/or sideways, but does not cause the opposing skater to lose relative position.
|5.9.17 - A block by a stopped skater that includes physical contact that forces the receiving opponent to lose relative position, or allows the initiator or a teammate to gain relative position.
5.9.18 - A clockwise block that forces the receiving opponent to lose relative position, or allows the initiator or a teammate to gain relative position.
5.9.21- Actively maintaining a stopped position (e.g., via braking or receiving an assist), or maintaining clockwise momentum, while impeding an opponent.
Failure to Reform penalties are updated to formally require the front and back groups to respond in a complementary manner.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|N/A||5.10.6 - An attempt to reform is considered “immediate” if the action is taken as soon as legally possible. If an immediate action is not sufficient to reform the pack, however, additional effort is required. If a Blocker is in the rear group, the must accelerate (until sprinting) toward the front group until a pack is reformed (coasting, stepping slowly, or stepping in an only somewhat-counter-clockwise direction are insufficient). If a Blocker is in the front group, they must actively brake until they come to a complete stop (coasting is insufficient).
188.8.131.52 - During a No Pack scenario, the front-most group is never required to skate clockwise to reform a pack.
184.108.40.206 - When pack reformation is imminent, the rear group may slow in order to avoid unsafe contact.
A skater can now, after straddling, end up exclusively inside the track on one foot without being penalized. This must be an unintentional, brief situation while the skater is actively trying to exit or stay off the track, avoiding an illegal re-entry. Many examples are given in a new Q&A.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|N/A||5.11.8 - A skater, having gone out of bounds or straddling, that briefly and unintentionally completely returns to the track on one skate in their efforts to remain or return out of bounds.
220.127.116.11 - This only includes efforts to remain out of bounds. Failed attempts to re-enter the track legally, resulting in illegal gameplay, should be penalized as normal.
Further hones the general concept between when it warrants penalization to skate while out of bounds. Many new examples now listed.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|Skaters must remain in bounds. No part of the skater’s skate(s) may touch the ground outside the track boundary. Skaters may not pick up momentum for a block until in bounds (see Section 6.8.2).
No Impact / No Penalty
6.12.1 - Being forced out of bounds by an opponent’s block.
6.12.2 - Skating out of bounds as the result of a missed or successful block (Blocking out of bounds criteria still apply; see Section 6.8 - Out of Bounds Engagement.)
6.12.3 - Maintaining or increasing speed for the purposes of skating to and from the penalty box.
6.12.4 - Exiting the track as a result of injury, equipment failure, or to avoid unsafe track conditions including but not limited to fallen skaters, debris, and spills.
6.12.5 - Skating out of bounds in order to retrieve a helmet cover that has been dropped out of bounds (see Section 18.104.22.168 and Section 22.214.171.124).
6.12.6 - Intentionally taking a straddling position on the track. The skater is still subject to Cutting Penalties (see Section 6.11 - Cutting the Track) and other Skating Out of Bounds Penalties (see Section 6.12.8 and Section 6.12.9).
6.12.7 - Skating out of bounds in an attempt to avoid a block.
6.12.8 - Skating out of bounds to maintain or increase speed.
126.96.36.199 - Striding or performing a cross-over while touching out of bounds.
6.12.9 - Skating across the track infield in a manner which substantially cuts short the lap distance. It is not necessary to pass an in-bounds skater to commit a skating out of bounds penalty.
188.8.131.52 - Skating repeatedly across the infield in a manner that results in a noticeable (though not immediately penalizable) shortening of a lap, which in the course of a game ends up cutting short the cumulative lap length by a “substantial” amount.
6.12.10 - Having put oneself in a straddling position, stepping out of bounds entirely of one’s own accord.
6.12.11 - Not applicable.
|Skaters must remain in bounds. No part of the skater’s skate(s) may touch the ground outside the track boundary. Skaters may not pick up momentum for a block until in bounds (see Section 5.8.2). Skaters may not use the out-of-bounds section of the track in order to decrease the distance needed to travel. Skaters may also not exit the track in order to avoid game play under their own power, even if due to poor judgment of speed.
Examples of Legal Play
5.12.1 - Maintaining or increasing speed while out of bounds in the outfield to travel to or from the Penalty Box.
5.12.2 - Exiting the track of one’s own accord in order to avoid an obstacle (e.g., spills, debris, or downed skaters).
5.12.3 - Exiting the track as a result of receiving a block.
5.12.4 - Exiting the track as a result of executing a block, or missing a block.
5.12.5 - Exiting the track of one’s own accord as a result of injury.
5.12.6 - Exiting the track of one’s own accord to address an equipment malfunction.
5.12.7 - Exiting the track of one’s own accord to retrieve a helmet cover that is out of bounds (if allowed to do so; see Section 2.6 - Helmet Covers).
5.12.8 - Cutting across the infield in order to legally re-enter the track behind an opponent (for example, one Jammer attempting to return to the track after the other Jammer has skated clockwise).
No Impact/No Penalty
5.12.9 - Intentionally adopting a straddling state, for any reason, so long as the skater does not fully exit the track.
5.12.10 - Exiting the track due to the belief that one had reason to be out of bounds legally.
184.108.40.206 - Mistakenly exiting the track due to mishearing an Official’s instruction (i.e., a skater thinking that they have been called on a penalty when in fact they were not).
220.127.116.11 - Exiting the track after a maneuver that the skater believes brought them out of bounds (e.g., an apex jump).
5.12.11 - After a warning (see Section 5.10 - Out of Play), exiting the track whilst out of play, as a result of an immediate attempt to return to the Engagement Zone, so long as this does not substantially cut the lap distance short.
5.12.12 - Exiting the track at any point during the four jam-ending whistles.
5.12.13 - Exiting the track due to a loss of balance (even if the skater remains upright). This skater is still potentially subject to penalties under Section 5.11 - Cutting the Track.
5.12.14 - Exiting the track due to a failed apex jump. This skater is still potentially subject to penalties under Section 5.11 - Cutting the Track.
5.12.15 - Being propelled fully out of bounds by a teammate. The out-of-bounds skater is still potentially subject to pack destruction penalties (see Section 5.10 - Out of Play).
5.12.16 - Skating while out of bounds in a manner that significantly cuts the lap distance short. For example:
18.104.22.168 - Cutting across the infield on the way to the Penalty Box.
22.214.171.124 - Repeatedly cutting small amounts of the lap distance short, which together add up to a significant portion of lap distance having been cut short over the course of the game.
5.12.17 - Crossing the track while down, from the outfield to the infield.
5.12.18 - Skating while out of bounds to maintain or increase speed. For example, performing a crossover while touching out of bounds.
5.12.19 - A skater fully exiting the track, perhaps straddling along the way, entirely under their own power (except where defined as legal or no-impact, above), including while down.
126.96.36.199 - A skater who returns from the outfield to the track and misjudges their speed, causing them to exit the track on the infield, has left the track entirely under their own power.
188.8.131.52 - A skater who fully exits the track in order to avoid receiving a block is considered to be exiting the track entirely under their own power.
5.12.20 - Not applicable.
Medical support staff is allowed to communicate with skaters inside the Penalty Box on medical matters (and nothing else).
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|6.13.20 - A penalized skater’s teammates or other support staff who enter the designated penalty box area to communicate with a penalized skater. If the person entering is not a skater in the bout the penalty will go to the Captain. Medical personnel are allowed in for medical purposes.||5.13.13 - Team support staff who enter the Penalty Box to communicate with a penalized skater (see Section 184.108.40.206). This penalty is issued to the Captain.
220.127.116.11 - All medical support staff will be allowed into the box as necessary, but may only communicate with penalized skaters regarding medical matters.
Clarifies how, upon re-entry to the track, the same rules as described in cutting will be applied.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|6.13.28 - A skater exiting the penalty box and returning to the track in front of more than one pack skater.
6.13.29 - A skater, after being waved off of a full penalty box, returning to the track in front of more than one pack skater.
6.13.30 - A skater, after addressing mid jam equipment malfunction, returning to the track in front of more than one pack skater.
|5.13.20 - A skater exiting the Penalty Box who re-enters the track in a manner that would constitute a penalty for cutting (see Section 5.11 - Cutting the Track), given that all in-bounds and upright Blockers are assumed to have superior position to a skater returning from the box.
5.13.21 - A skater, after being waved off of a full Penalty Box, who re-enters the track in a manner that would constitute a penalty for cutting (see Section 5.11 - Cutting the Track), given that all in-bounds and upright Blockers are assumed to have superior position to a skater returning from the box.
5.13.22 - A skater, after addressing mid-jam equipment malfunction, who re-enters the track in a manner that would constitute a penalty for cutting (see Section 5.11 - Cutting the Track), given that all in-bounds and upright Blockers are assumed to have superior position to a skater returning after addressing mid-jam equipment malfunctions.
Unsporting behavior, trying to get opponents penalized by pretending to be downed, is penalized.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|N/A||5.16.12 - Intentionally adopting a downed position so as to deceive a referee into incorrectly calling a penalty on an opponent.|
Time in the Penalty Box is shortened to 30 seconds. This does not impact any of the procedures surrounding penalties, except for the actual duration of serving the full penalty itself.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|7.1.2 - Major penalties expire after one minute served in the penalty box. Each major penalty is timed separately and individually.||6.1.2 - Penalties expire after 30 seconds served in the Penalty Box. Each penalty is timed separately and individually.|
Clarifies what will happen when Jammers leave or are released early while the opposing Jammer is sent to the Penalty Box with an intervening penalty.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|N/A||6.3.4 - If a penalized Jammer exits the Penalty Box before being officially dismissed by an Official, that Jammer will be required to return to the box and serve any unserved time, no matter how small. Per Section 5.13.23, that Jammer will also be assessed a penalty.
18.104.22.168 - If the other Jammer is seated in the box before the first Jammer has returned to the box to serve their time, the second Jammer will remain in the box until their penalty is complete, or until the first Jammer is once again seated, whichever comes first. When the original Jammer is once again seated, they will serve the remainder of their first penalty, plus the amount of time served by the second Jammer. This combined penalty time will be served by the original Jammer regardless of the other Jammer’s actions from this point forward.
6.3.5 - If a penalized Jammer is incorrectly dismissed early from the Penalty Box by an Official, that Jammer will be required to return to the box and serve any unserved time, no matter how small. This Jammer will not be assessed a penalty.
22.214.171.124 - If the other Jammer is seated in the box before the first Jammer has returned to the box, they will serve as many seconds as the original Jammer had served. The original Jammer is thereby excused from their unserved time, and is no longer required to return to the box. If they report to the box anyway, they will be instructed to return to the track.
Clarifies that during a No Pack, a scoring pass ends when the Jammer has passed the foremost Blocker.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|126.96.36.199 - Once the Jammer has exited the Engagement Zone, the Jammer’s scoring pass is complete (see Section 3.4 - Lead Jammer and Section 4.1 - Pack Definition) and the Jammer immediately begins the next scoring pass.||188.8.131.52 - The Jammer’s scoring pass is complete (and their next scoring pass begins) once the Jammer has exited the Engagement Zone. If there is no pack, the scoring pass ends when the Jammer passes the foremost Blocker. If the Jammer is ahead of all Blockers, their pass ends immediately if a No Pack situation is declared (see Section 2.4 - Lead Jammer and Section 3.1 - Pack Definition)|
Clarifies that, in general, words and concepts used in the rules should be read and understood colloquially. The Glossary specifies the exceptions: words that have a specific or technical meaning in the rules. The following definitions in the Glossary have been added or changed: Apex Jump, Grasping, In Bounds, Inactive Jammer, Insubordination, Impenetrable, Linking, Multi-Player Block, Officiating Number, Out of Bounds, Pass (noun), Passing the Star, Penalty, Point of No Return, Straddling Skater, and Upright.
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|In Bounds: A skater is in bounds as long as all parts of the skater’s body and equipment that are in contact with the ground are within or on the track boundary. If a skater jumps and ceases all contact with the ground, their prior in bounds/out of bounds status is maintained until contact with the ground re-establishes in bounds/out of bounds status. In-bounds skaters are not necessarily in play.
Inactive Jammer: A skater previously designated as the Jammer who is no longer wearing the Jammer Helmet Cover. (See Section 3.3 - Jammer)
Insubordination: Willfully failing to comply with a referee’s orders. Wrongful or improper behavior motivated by intentional purpose or obstinate indifference to the rules.
Multi-Player Block: Blocking with multiple skaters via a grabbing, holding, linking, or joining fashion that impedes an opponent’s movement through the pack. Touching and assisting teammates that does not create a wall to impede an opponent is not a multi-player block. A multi-player block must include contact to be penalized. (See Section 6.7 - Multi-Player Blocks)
Out of Bounds: A skater is out of bounds when any part of the skater’s body or equipment is touching the ground beyond the track boundary. If a skater jumps and ceases all contact with the ground, their prior in bounds/out of bounds status is maintained until contact with the ground re-establishes in bounds/out of bounds status. Out of bounds skaters are not in play.
Pass (noun): A pass begins with the Jammer behind the pack and ends when the Jammer has cleared the Engagement Zone. The Jammer is immediately considered to be on their next pass once they have cleared the front of the Engagement Zone. (See Scoring Pass and Initial Pass)
Passing the Star (A.K.A., Star Pass)The act of passing the star has two components:
The physical transfer of the Jammer cover from the current Jammer to the current Pivot (See Section 3.5 - Passing the Star and Section 3.5.4 - Pass Procedure)
The change of the point of scoring position from the previous Jammer to the new Jammer (previous Pivot) (See Section 3.5 - Passing the Star and Section 3.5.9 - Pass Completion).
Penalty: The punishment assessed for a foul.
|In Bounds: A skater is in bounds at the beginning of the jam if they are in position at the beginning of the jam (see Section 3.2 - Pre-Jam Positioning). A skater remains in bounds until they adopt a straddling or out-of-bounds position. Once out of bounds or straddling, a skater is considered to be in bounds once again once all parts of the skater that are touching the ground are touching within the track boundary.
Inactive Jammer: A skater designated as the Jammer who is not wearing the Jammer helmet cover in such a way that the stars are visible (see Section 2.3 - Jammer).
Insubordination: Willfully or neglectfully failing to comply with a referee’s orders. Wrongful or improper behavior motivated by intentional disregard for the rules (see Section 5.14 - Insubordination).
Multi-Player Block: Impeding an opponent from passing between a skater and their teammate (see Section 5.7 - Multi-Player Blocks).
Out of Bounds: A skater is out of bounds when any part of the skater’s body or equipment is touching the ground beyond the track boundary, including both arms or hands (one arm or hand does not render a skater out of bounds), or any part below the skater’s waist (e.g., a knee, a skate, or a hip). Skaters who are airborne maintain their prior in-bounds (or out-of-bounds, or straddling) status until they land. Skaters who are straddling are considered out of bounds, except where otherwise noted.
Pass (noun): A pass begins with the Jammer behind the pack and ends when the Jammer has cleared the Engagement Zone. The Jammer is immediately considered to be on their next pass once they have cleared the front of the Engagement Zone (see Scoring Pass and Initial Pass), if one exists, or immediately upon passing the foremost Blocker if there is no pack.
Passing the Star (A.K.A., Star Pass): The act of transferring Jammer status, which is accomplished by the Jammer handing their helmet cover (the Star) to the Pivot (see Section 2.5 - Passing the Star).
Penalty: A violation of the rules of the game requiring the skater to serve time in the Penalty Box (see Section 5 - Penalties).
Apex Jump: An attempt to legally shorten the distance travelled around the curve of the track by leaping over the track boundary and landing back in bounds.
Grasping: Physically holding onto something with a clenched fist. For example, grabbing a teammate’s uniform, or holding hands. The grasping skater’s arm, from the hand up to (but not including) the shoulder is considered to be part of the “grasp”. The teammate is not considered part of the grasp, unless the teammate is independently grasping.
Impenetrable: A skater or set of teammates is considered impenetrable from a certain direction when, to achieve a pass on one or more of the skaters, an opponent would need to physically break said teammates’ bones or joints. The parts that would need to be physically broken in order to pass are considered the “impenetrable” parts. For example, if two teammates are skating forwards with their arms around each others’ backs, the arms constitute an impenetrable wall, so that an opponent could not pass between the pair without breaking said arms.
Linking: Interlocking two arms via crooked elbows. Both skaters’ arms, up to (but not including) the shoulder are considered to be part of the “link”.
Officiating Number: Any sort of shortened or otherwise modified version of a skater’s roster number, used in order to facilitate communication amongst Officials.
Point of No ReturnThe far edge of the Penalty Box, in the counterclockwise direction (see Section 184.108.40.206.1), including its projection across the track.
Upright: Any skater who is not considered “down” (see Down).
A skater who is touching outside the track with one hand only is still considered in bounds (rather than straddling).
|Old Rule||New Rule|
|A skater that is simultaneously touching both inside and outside the track boundary line.||An out-of-bounds skater who is partially touching inside the track boundary line. Straddling skaters are considered “out of bounds”, except where otherwise noted.|
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